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立式加工中心工艺守则

立式加工中心工艺守则

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:pjkhsj.com.cn 点击:


操作者必须熟悉立式加工中心操作使用手册和机床性能,并经过有关立式加工中心的理和实习培训,通过考试及格取得上岗证,才具备操作立式加工中心的资格。

一、开(kai)机(ji)前准备 :

1机床在每次(ci)开机或机床按急停复位后(hou),首先回机床参(can)考(kao)零位(即回零),使(shi)机床对其(qi)以(yi)后(hou)的操作有一个(ge)基准位置(zhi)。

2工件(jian)装(zhuang)(zhuang)夹(jia)前要先清洁好各(ge)表(biao)(biao)面(mian),不(bu)能(neng)粘有(you)油污(wu)、铁屑和灰(hui)尘,并(bing)用锉刀(或油石)去掉工件(jian)表(biao)(biao)面(mian)的毛刺。装(zhuang)(zhuang)夹(jia)用的等高铁一定(ding)要经(jing)磨床磨平各(ge)表(biao)(biao)面(mian),使其光滑、平整。码(ma)铁、螺母一定(ding)要坚(jian)固(gu),能(neng)可靠地(di)夹(jia)紧(jin)工件(jian),对一些难(nan)装(zhuang)(zhuang)夹(jia)的小工件(jian)可直(zhi)接夹(jia)紧(jin)在虎钳(qian)上。

3机床工作(zuo)台应清洁干净,无铁屑、灰尘、油(you)污。

4垫铁(tie)一般放在工件(jian)的四(si)角,对(dui)跨(kua)度过大的工件(jian)须要在中(zhong)间加(jia)放等(deng)高(gao)垫铁(tie)。

5根据图纸(zhi)的尺(chi)(chi)寸,使用(yong)拉(la)尺(chi)(chi)检查工件的长宽高是否(fou)合格。

6装(zhuang)夹工(gong)件(jian)时(shi)根据编程作业指导(dao)书(shu)的(de)装(zhuang)夹摆放方式,要(yao)考(kao)虑避(bi)开加工(gong)的(de)部位和在加工(gong)中刀头(tou)可(ke)能碰到夹具的(de)情况。

7工(gong)件摆放在(zai)垫铁(tie)上(shang)以后(hou),就(jiu)要(yao)根据(ju)图纸要(yao)求对(dui)工(gong)件基(ji)准(zhun)面(mian)进行拉(la)(la)表。工(gong)件长度(du)方向(xiang)误差(cha)小于(yu)0.02mm,顶面(mian)X、Y方向(xiang)水平误差(cha)小于(yu)0.05mm。对(dui)于(yu)已(yi)经六面(mian)都磨好的工(gong)件要(yao)校检其垂直度(du)是(shi)否合格(ge)。工(gong)件拉(la)(la)表完毕后(hou)一定(ding)要(yao)拧紧螺(luo)母,以防止装夹不30. 牢固而使工(gong)件在(zai)加(jia)工(gong)中移位的现(xian)象。

8再拉表一次,确定(ding)夹紧好后(hou)误差不超差。

9工件碰(peng)(peng)数:对装夹(jia)好的工件可利用(yong)碰(peng)(peng)数头(tou)进行碰(peng)(peng)数定加工参考(kao)零位(wei), 碰(peng)(peng)数头(tou)可用(yong)光电式和机械(xie)式两种(zhong),碰(peng)(peng)当选方法有(you)分中碰(peng)(peng)数和单边碰(peng)(peng)数两种(zhong),

立式加工中心

1、立式加工中心分中碰数步骤如下:

碰(peng)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)方(fang)法:光电式(shi)静止(zhi),机械式(shi)转速450~600rpm。分中碰(peng)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)手动(dong)(dong)移(yi)动(dong)(dong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台(tai)X轴(zhou)(zhou), 使(shi)碰(peng)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)头(tou)碰(peng)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)一(yi)侧面,当碰(peng)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)头(tou)刚碰(peng)到(dao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)使(shi)红(hong)灯亮时(shi),就(jiu)设定(ding)这点(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)相(xiang)对(dui)(dui)坐标(biao)(biao)45. 值(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)为零;再(zai)(zai)手动(dong)(dong)移(yi)动(dong)(dong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台(tai)X轴(zhou)(zhou)使(shi)碰(peng)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)头(tou)碰(peng)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)另一(yi)侧面,当碰(peng)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)头(tou)刚碰(peng)上(shang)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)时(shi)记下这时(shi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)相(xiang)对(dui)(dui)坐标(biao)(biao)47. 。 根据其相(xiang)对(dui)(dui)值(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)减去(qu)碰(peng)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)头(tou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)直径(即工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)长度(du)(du)(du)),检(jian)(jian)(jian)查工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)长度(du)(du)(du)是(shi)否合符图纸要求。把(ba)这个相(xiang)对(dui)(dui)坐标(biao)(biao) 数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)除以2,所得数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)值(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)就(jiu)是(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)X轴(zhou)(zhou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)中间数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)值(zhi)(zhi)(zhi),再(zai)(zai)移(yi)动(dong)(dong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台(tai)到(dao)X轴(zhou)(zhou)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)中间数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)值(zhi)(zhi)(zhi),把(ba)这点(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)X轴(zhou)(zhou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)相(xiang)对(dui)(dui)坐标(biao)(biao)值(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)设定(ding)为零,这点(dian)(dian)就(jiu)是(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)X轴(zhou)(zhou)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)零位(wei)(wei)(wei)。认真把(ba)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)X轴(zhou)(zhou)上(shang)零位(wei)(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机械坐标(biao)(biao)值(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)记录在(zai)G54~G59的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)其中一(yi)个里,让机床确(que)定(ding)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)X轴(zhou)(zhou)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)零位(wei)(wei)(wei)。再(zai)(zai)一(yi)次认真检(jian)(jian)(jian)查数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)据的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)正确(que)性。工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)Y轴(zhou)(zhou)零位(wei)(wei)(wei)设定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)步骤(zhou)同X轴(zhou)(zhou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)操作(zuo)相(xiang)同 。根据编程作(zuo)业指导(dao)书准备好所有刀具(ju)。根据编程作(zuo)业指67. 导(dao)书的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)刀具(ju)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)据,换上(shang)要进行加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)刀具(ju),让刀具(ju)去(qu)碰(peng)摆在(zai)基准面上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)高度(du)(du)(du)测量(liang)器,当测量(liang)器红(hong)灯亮时(shi)把(ba)这点(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)相(xiang)对(dui)(dui)坐标(biao)(biao)值(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)设定(ding)为零。移(yi)动(dong)(dong)刀具(ju)到(dao)安全(quan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)地方(fang),手动(dong)(dong)向下移(yi)动(dong)(dong)刀具(ju)50mm,把(ba)这点(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)相(xiang)对(dui)(dui)坐标(biao)(biao)值(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)再(zai)(zai)设定(ding)为零,这点(dian)(dian)就(jiu)是(shi)Z轴(zhou)(zhou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)零位(wei)(wei)(wei)。把(ba)这点(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机械坐标(biao)(biao)Z值(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)记录在(zai)G54~G59其中一(yi)个里。这就(jiu)完(wan)成了工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)X、Y、Z轴(zhou)(zhou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)零位(wei)(wei)(wei)设定(ding)。再(zai)(zai)一(yi)次认真检(jian)(jian)(jian)查数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)据的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)正确(que)性。

2、单(dan)边(bian)碰(peng)(peng)数(shu)的(de)(de)(de)也是(shi)按上面的(de)(de)(de)方(fang)法碰(peng)(peng)工(gong)件(jian)(jian)X、Y轴(zhou)的(de)(de)(de)一(yi)(yi)边(bian),把(ba)(ba)(ba)这点的(de)(de)(de)X、Y轴(zhou)的(de)(de)(de)相对坐(zuo)标(biao)值偏移(yi)碰(peng)(peng)数(shu)头(tou)的(de)(de)(de)半径就是(shi)X、Y轴(zhou)的(de)(de)(de)零(ling)位(wei),最后把(ba)(ba)(ba)一(yi)(yi)点X、Y轴(zhou)的(de)(de)(de)机械坐(zuo)标(biao)记在(zai)G54~G的(de)(de)(de)其(qi)中(zhong)一(yi)(yi)个里。再一(yi)(yi)次认(ren)真(zhen)检(jian)查数(shu)据(ju)的(de)(de)(de)正(zheng)确(que)性。检(jian)查零(ling)点的(de)(de)(de)正(zheng)确(que)性,把(ba)(ba)(ba)X、Y轴(zhou)移(yi)动(dong)到工(gong)件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)边(bian)悬,根(gen)据(ju)工(gong)件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)尺寸(cun),目(mu)测其(qi)零(ling)点的(de)(de)(de)正(zheng)确(que)性。根(gen)据(ju)编(bian)程作业指(zhi)导书的(de)(de)(de)文件(jian)(jian)路径把(ba)(ba)(ba)程序文件(jian)(jian)拷贝到电脑上。

10在(zai)计算机中打(da)开要传数(shu)的(de)加工(gong)程序进行检查,然后(hou)让计算机进入DNC状态,并(bing)输入正确加工(gong)程序的(de)文件(jian)名 。

11在(zai)加工(gong)机床(chuang)上按(an)TAPE键(jian)和程(cheng)序启动(dong)键(jian),这时机床(chuang)控制器(qi)出现闪烁的LSK字样。

12在计(ji)算机上按回(hui)车键盘就(jiu)可进行DNC传数加工(gong)。

二、加(jia)工参数的(de)设定:

1在加工(gong)中主轴转速的设定:

N=1000×V/(3.14×D)

注(zhu):N------主轴转速(rpm/min)

V------切削速(su)度(du)(m/min)

D-----刀具直径(jing)(mm)

2加工的进给速(su)度设定:

F=N×M×Fn

注(zhu):F------进给速度(mm/min)

M------刀具刃数

Fn-----刀(dao)具的切削量(liang)(mm/转)

3每刃切削量设定:

Fn=Z×Fz

注(zhu):Z------刀(dao)具的刃数

Fz-----刀具(ju)每(mei)刃(ren)的切削量(mm/转(zhuan))

三、立式加工中心开(kai)机加工:

1执(zhi)行每一个程序的(de)开(kai)(kai)始时(shi)必须认真(zhen)检(jian)查其所用的(de)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)是否编程指导(dao)书(shu)上(shang)所指3. 定(ding)的(de)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)。开(kai)(kai)始加(jia)工(gong)时(shi)要(yao)(yao)把进给速度调(diao)到最(zui)小(xiao),单(dan)节执(zhi)行,快(kuai)速定(ding)位、落(luo)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)、进刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)时(shi)须集中精(jing)神(shen),手应放在停止键上(shang)有(you)问题立即停止,注意观察刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)运动方向以确保(bao)安全进刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao),然后(hou)慢慢加(jia)大进给速度到合适,同时(shi)要(yao)(yao)对(dui)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)和工(gong)件(jian)加(jia)冷(leng)(leng)却液或(huo)冷(leng)(leng)风。

2开粗加(jia)工(gong)时不得离(li)控制面板太远,有异常现象及时停机检查。开粗后再拉表一次,确定(ding)工(gong)件(jian)没有松动(dong)。如有侧(ce)必须(xu)重新校正和碰数。

3在加(jia)工过程中不断(duan)优化加(jia)工参数,达最佳加(jia)工效果。因(yin)本工序(xu)是关键(jian)工序(xu),因(yin)此工件加(jia)工完毕后,应(ying)测量其主(zhu)要尺寸数值与图纸要求(qiu)是否一致,如(ru)有问题立即通知当班组长或编程员检查、解决(jue)。经(jing)自检合格后方可拆(chai)下,并必须送检验(yan)员专(zhuan)检。

4工件拆(chai)下后及时清洁机床工作台。

四、加工类(lei)型(xing):

1孔加工:

2钻加工(gong):在(zai)加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)上钻孔前一(yi)定要(yao)先用(yong)中(zhong)心(xin)钻定位,再用(yong)比图纸尺寸小0.5~2mm的钻头(tou)钻孔,最后(hou)用(yong)合(he)适的钻头(tou)精加工(gong)。

3铰(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)孔(kong)加工(gong):对工(gong)件进行铰(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)孔(kong)加工(gong)也(ye)是要先用中心(xin)钻(zuan)(zuan)定位(wei),再(zai)用比图纸尺寸小0.5~0.3mm的钻(zuan)(zuan)头钻(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong),最后再(zai)用铰(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)刀铰(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)孔(kong), 铰(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)孔(kong)加工(gong)时注意(yi)控(kong)制主轴转速在70~180rpm/min内。

4镗孔(kong)加(jia)工(gong):对(dui)工(gong)件进行镗孔(kong)加(jia)工(gong)要先(xian)用中心钻定(ding)位,再用比图纸尺(chi)寸(cun)小1~2mm的(de)钻头钻孔(kong),然后(hou)用粗镗刀(或铣刀)加(jia)工(gong)到只剩下单边(bian)0.3mm左右(you)的(de)加(jia)工(gong)余(yu)量(liang),最(zui)后(hou)用预先(xian)调好尺(chi)寸(cun)的(de)精(jing)镗刀进行精(jing)镗,最(zui)后(hou)一次精(jing)镗余(yu)量(liang)不能少于0.1mm。

五、直接数控(DNC)操作(zuo):

1在(zai)DNC数控加工前(qian)要先装(zhuang)夹好工件,定好零位,设(she)定好参数。

六、工(gong)人(ren)自检内容(rong)、范(fan)围:

1加(jia)(jia)工(gong)者(zhe)在加(jia)(jia)工(gong)前必须看清楚(chu)(chu)工(gong)艺(yi)卡内容,清楚(chu)(chu)知(zhi)道工(gong)件要加(jia)(jia)工(gong)的部位、形状、图纸(zhi)各尺(chi)寸并(bing)知(zhi)道其下工(gong)序加(jia)(jia)工(gong)内容。

2工件装夹(jia)前应(ying)先测量坯料尺寸是否(fou)符合图纸要(yao)求,工件装夹(jia)时必须认真检查(cha)其摆(bai)放是否(fou)与编程作(zuo)业指导书一致。

3在粗(cu)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)完成后应及(ji)时进(jin)行(xing)自(zi)检,以便对(dui)有(you)(you)误(wu)差的(de)数据及(ji)时进(jin)行(xing)调整。自(zi)检内容主要(yao)为(wei)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)部位(wei)的(de)位(wei)置尺(chi)寸(cun)。如:(1).工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)是(shi)否(fou)有(you)(you)松动;(2).工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)是(shi)否(fou)正(zheng)确(que)分(fen)中;(3).加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)部位(wei)到基准边(bian)(基准点(dian))的(de)尺(chi)寸(cun)是(shi)否(fou)符合图纸要(yao)求;(4).加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)部位(wei)相互(hu)间(jian)的(de)位(wei)置尺(chi)寸(cun)。在检查(cha)完位(wei)置尺(chi)寸(cun)后要(yao)对(dui)粗(cu)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)形状尺(chi)进(jin)行(xing)测(ce)量(圆(yuan)弧除外)。

4经过粗加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)检(jian)后(hou)才进(jin)行精加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)。精加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)后(hou)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人应对(dui)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)部(bu)位的(de)形状尺(chi)(chi)(chi)寸进(jin)自(zi)检(jian):对(dui)垂直面的(de)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)部(bu)位检(jian)测其基本长宽尺(chi)(chi)(chi)寸;对(dui)斜(xie)面的(de)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)部(bu)位测量图纸(zhi)上标(biao)出的(de)基点尺(chi)(chi)(chi)寸。

5工人完成工件(jian)自(zi)检,确认与图纸(zhi)及工艺要求相(xiang)符合后(hou)方能(neng)拆(chai)下工件(jian)送(song)检验员(yuan)进行专检。

六、立式加工中心出错的原因、特别注意、改正措施列表:

1没有(you)检(jian)查(cha)工(gong)(gong)件的长宽高尺(chi)(chi)寸 上(shang)机前(qian)的准备工(gong)(gong)作(zuo),必须认真检(jian)查(cha)工(gong)(gong)件长宽高尺(chi)(chi)寸是(shi)否符合图纸 利(li)用拉尺(chi)(chi)、碰数等方法检(jian)查(cha)其正确性。

2工件的摆(bai)放方向(xiang) 根(gen)据编(bian)程作业指(zhi)导(dao)书要求,对照(zhao)工件、图纸确定(ding)工件的摆(bai)放方向(xiang) 认真检查工件的方向(xiang),然后按指(zhi)导(dao)书的摆(bai)放进行(xing)操作。

3碰(peng)数(shu)(shu)偏移 碰(peng)数(shu)(shu)方法、碰(peng)数(shu)(shu)后检(jian)查、输入数(shu)(shu)据的(de)(de)检(jian)查、碰(peng)数(shu)(shu)后根据工件的(de)(de)长(zhang)宽尺寸,把主轴移动到工件的(de)(de)边  缘,检(jian)查碰(peng)数(shu)(shu)的(de)(de)正(zheng)确性;输入数(shu)(shu)据后再检(jian)查其正(zheng)确性。

4用(yong)错刀具(ju) 认(ren)真(zhen)检查(cha)所装的刀具(ju)是否与指导书的一致(zhi)在(zai)执行程序的第一句时,必须确认(ren)所用(yong)的刀具(ju)。

5开(kai)(kai)粗时(shi)刀(dao)具(ju)(ju)崩碎导致工(gong)件过切、刀(dao)具(ju)(ju)报废 开(kai)(kai)粗时(shi)不(bu)得(de)离控制(zhi)面板(ban)太(tai)远 有异常现象及时(shi)停(ting)机检查 开(kai)(kai)粗后工(gong)件移(yi)位(wei) 装夹时(shi)必须确保紧(jin)固 开(kai)(kai)粗后重新拉表、碰数。

6工(gong)件尺(chi)寸(cun)不到数 检查(cha)(cha)所使(shi)用的刀具;通知编程检查(cha)(cha)程序 对于重(zhong)要位置(zhi),确保使(shi)用新刀具加(jia)工(gong);修改(gai)或(huo)增加(jia)程序。

7输(shu)错文件名 加工前必须认(ren)真(zhen)检查程序(xu)所用的(de)刀具(ju)对应的(de)文件名 认(ren)真(zhen)检查输(shu)入的(de)文件名的(de)正确(que)性。


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