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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:pjkhsj.com.cn 点击:


如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心十分重要。可以说,正确选型是用好卧式加工中心的基础,是使卧式加工中心发挥出最大效率和效益的关键。卧式加工中心一次性投资大、技术复杂,同时种类、规格繁多,其价格、功能和精度又是一个对立的统一体,用户在选购时往往有不少疑问。

卧式加工中心

1我应(ying)该使(shi)用(yong)卧式加(jia)工(gong)中心吗(ma)?——加(jia)工(gong)工(gong)件(jian)特征

加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)类(lei)型(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)(de)选(xuan)(xuan)定(ding)需(xu)要(yao)考虑加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)对象(xiang)、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)范围和(he)设(she)备(bei)价格等(deng)因素,根据(ju)所选(xuan)(xuan)零(ling)件(jian)族 (组)进行。如(ru)果您的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)具有以(yi)下特征,则(ze)应选(xuan)(xuan)择卧式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin):加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)两面(mian)(mian)以(yi)上的(de)(de)(de)零(ling)件(jian)或加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)在四周呈径向(xiang)辐射状排列的(de)(de)(de)孔(kong)系、面(mian)(mian),如(ru)箱体类(lei)、壳(qiao)体类(lei)零(ling)件(jian)等(deng),应选(xuan)(xuan)择卧式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin);被(bei)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零(ling)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)位置精度(du)要(yao)求较高,宜(yi)选(xuan)(xuan)用高精密卧式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin);零(ling)件(jian)在一(yi)次装夹中(zhong)需(xu)要(yao)完成多(duo)面(mian)(mian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时,可(ke)选(xuan)(xuan)择立卧复合(he)式五面(mian)(mian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)。当然,上述各点也不是(shi)绝对的(de)(de)(de),一(yi)方(fang)面(mian)(mian)是(shi)由于加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)正朝着复合(he)化方(fang)向(xiang)发展,另一(yi)方(fang)面(mian)(mian)选(xuan)(xuan)型(xing)(xing)时要(yao)综合(he)考虑生产(chan)效(xiao)率、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺要(yao)求和(he)设(she)备(bei)资金等(deng)因素,要(yao)以(yi)性价比来衡量选(xuan)(xuan)型(xing)(xing)方(fang)案的(de)(de)(de)合(he)理性。

建议:采购(gou)用(yong)户需要根(gen)据加(jia)工(gong)对(dui)象、加(jia)工(gong)工(gong)艺(yi)、加(jia)工(gong)范围等(deng)特征来确定(ding)是否(fou)使用(yong)卧式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)以(yi)及使用(yong)什么样的卧式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)。

2我需要选用什么规格的卧式加工中心?——主要规格的选定

(1)工作(zuo)台尺寸

这是卧式加工(gong)中心(xin)的(de)主参数,主要取决(jue)于典(dian)型零(ling)件(jian)的(de)外廓尺寸、装(zhuang)夹(jia)方式等(deng)(deng)。应选(xuan)择比典(dian)型零(ling)件(jian)外廓尺寸稍大一些的(de)工(gong)作台(tai),以便留出安装(zhuang)夹(jia)具所(suo)需的(de)空间,保证零(ling)件(jian)在其上面能(neng)够顺利(li)装(zhuang)夹(jia),此外还应考虑工(gong)作台(tai)的(de)承(cheng)载能(neng)力、T形槽数量和尺寸等(deng)(deng),小(xiao)尺寸的(de)比较通用(yong),比如站内的(de)卧式加工(gong)中心(xin)MH-630A、MH-800A、MH-500A、LH-630B等(deng)(deng)。

建议:目前(qian)市场上的卧式加工中心工作台(tai)尺寸(cun)多(duo)为1000以下的,能(neng)够满足大多(duo)数用户的需求。

(2)坐标轴行程(cheng)

最基(ji)本的(de)(de)(de)坐(zuo)标(biao)轴(zhou)是X、Y、Z三轴(zhou),其行(xing)(xing)程(cheng)和工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台(tai)尺(chi)寸(cun)有相(xiang)应的(de)(de)(de)比例关系(xi)(xi),工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台(tai)面的(de)(de)(de)大小基(ji)本上确定了加(jia)工(gong)(gong)空间的(de)(de)(de)大小。如个别零件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)尺(chi)寸(cun)大于(yu)卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心行(xing)(xing)程(cheng)时(shi),则必(bi)须要(yao)求零件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)区域处于(yu)机(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)行(xing)(xing)程(cheng)范(fan)围之内,此外还(hai)要(yao)考虑零件(jian)是否与(yu)机(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)交换刀具(ju)的(de)(de)(de)空间干(gan)(gan)涉、与(yu)机(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)防护罩等附件(jian)发生干(gan)(gan)涉等系(xi)(xi)列问题。而(er)对需要(yao)多轴(zhou)联(lian)动加(jia)工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心 (如增加(jia)回转坐(zuo)标(biao)A、B、C或附加(jia)坐(zuo)标(biao)U、V、W),如四轴(zhou)、五(wu)轴(zhou)联(lian)动卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心,这(zhei)就需要(yao)特殊订货(huo),同时(shi)必(bi)须对相(xiang)应配套的(de)(de)(de)编程(cheng)软件(jian)、测量手段以及机(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)价(jia)格(ge)等有全面的(de)(de)(de)考虑和安排(pai)。

建议:采购用户(hu)需要(yao)根据加工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)件规格选择不(bu)同坐标轴行程的卧式(shi)加工(gong)(gong)中心,多(duo)轴联动(dong)需要(yao)特殊定(ding)制。

(3)主轴电动机功率与转矩

它反(fan)映了卧(wo)式加工(gong)中(zhong)心的切削效率,也从一个侧面反(fan)映了卧(wo)式加工(gong)中(zhong)心的切削刚性和机床(chuang)整体(ti)刚度。主(zhu)(zhu)轴电动机功(gong)率在同类规格的卧(wo)式加工(gong)中(zhong)心上可以有各种不同的配置(zhi),同类规格的主(zhu)(zhu)轴转速不同的卧(wo)式加工(gong)中(zhong)心,主(zhu)(zhu)轴电动机功(gong)率可以相差(cha)很大。

建议:采购用户应根(gen)据自身典(dian)型零件毛坯余量大小、切削(xue)(xue)能力 (单位时(shi)间(jian)金(jin)属切削(xue)(xue)量)、要求达到(dao)的加工精度、实际能配置的刀具等因素综合选择(ze)。

(4)主轴转速与(yu)进给速度

需要(yao)高速(su)(su)切削(xue)或超(chao)低速(su)(su)切削(xue)时(shi),应(ying)关注主(zhu)轴(zhou)的(de)转速(su)(su)范围(wei)。特别是高速(su)(su)切削(xue)时(shi),既要(yao)有高的(de)主(zhu)轴(zhou)转速(su)(su),同时(shi)也(ye)要(yao)具备(bei)与主(zhu)轴(zhou)转速(su)(su)相匹配(pei)的(de)进给(ji)速(su)(su)度。目前卧式加(jia)工中心高速(su)(su)化趋势(shi)发展很快,主(zhu)轴(zhou)从(cong)每分钟几(ji)千转到(dao)几(ji)万转,直线坐标(biao)快速(su)(su)移动(dong)速(su)(su)度从(cong)10—20/min上升到(dao)80m/min以上,当(dang)然其(qi)功能部件如电(dian)主(zhu)轴(zhou)、直线电(dian)动(dong)机、直线滚动(dong)导轨、主(zhu)轴(zhou)轴(zhou)承等及相配(pei)套(tao)的(de)光栅尺、刀具等附件价格也(ye)都相应(ying)上升,甚至很昂贵。

建(jian)议:采购(gou)用户必须(xu)根据自身的(de)技术能(neng)力和配套能(neng)力合理作出卧式加工中心的(de)合理选型。

(5)刀库容量

可以(yi)根据被(bei)加工(gong)零(ling)(ling)件(jian)的工(gong)艺分析(xi)结果来确定(ding)所需数量(liang)(liang),通(tong)常(chang)以(yi)典型(xing)零(ling)(ling)件(jian)在一(yi)次装(zhuang)夹中所需刀(dao)具(ju)数量(liang)(liang)来确定(ding)刀(dao)库(ku)的容量(liang)(liang),卧式加工(gong)中心以(yi)选(xuan)用(yong)40把刀(dao)左右的刀(dao)库(ku)为宜(yi)。同时要(yao)关注最(zui)大刀(dao)具(ju)直径(jing)与长度以(yi)及最(zui)大刀(dao)具(ju)重量(liang)(liang)等。用(yong)于FMC或FMS的卧式加工(gong)中心,应选(xuan)择大容量(liang)(liang)刀(dao)库(ku),甚至配置(zhi)可交换刀(dao)库(ku)。

建(jian)议(yi):普(pu)通卧式加(jia)工中(zhong)心选(xuan)择(ze)40把刀(dao)左右的刀(dao)库即(ji)够用,用于FMC或(huo)FMS的卧式加(jia)工中(zhong)心应选(xuan)择(ze)大容量刀(dao)库。

3我(wo)需(xu)要(yao)选用什么精度的卧式加(jia)工(gong)中心?——精度的选定

加(jia)工中心的(de)(de)精度(du)(du)等(deng)级主(zhu)要(yao)根据典型零件关键(jian)部位(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)精度(du)(du)来(lai)确定(ding)(ding)(ding)。其精度(du)(du)主(zhu)要(yao)包括定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)精度(du)(du)、重(zhong)复(fu)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)精度(du)(du)和(he)铣圆精度(du)(du),特(te)别(bie)是(shi)(shi)重(zhong)复(fu)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)精度(du)(du),它反映了坐标(biao)(biao)轴的(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)稳定(ding)(ding)(ding)性,是(shi)(shi)衡量该轴是(shi)(shi)否稳定(ding)(ding)(ding)可(ke)靠工作(zuo)的(de)(de)基本指标(biao)(biao)。特(te)别(bie)值得注意的(de)(de)是(shi)(shi),选型订(ding)货时必须全面分析,不(bu)(bu)能简单(dan)地看产品样本所列(lie)的(de)(de)精度(du)(du)数(shu)(shu)值,因为标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)不(bu)(bu)同(tong)、规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)数(shu)(shu)值不(bu)(bu)同(tong)、检(jian)测(ce)(ce)方法(fa)不(bu)(bu)同(tong),数(shu)(shu)值的(de)(de)含(han)义就不(bu)(bu)同(tong)。刊物、样本、合格证所列(lie)出(chu)的(de)(de)单(dan)位(wei)(wei)长度(du)(du)上允许的(de)(de)正负值(一(yi)般为正负0.05)常常是(shi)(shi)不(bu)(bu)明确的(de)(de),订(ding)货时要(yao)特(te)别(bie)注意,一(yi)定(ding)(ding)(ding)要(yao)弄清是(shi)(shi)IOS(国际标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)化组织标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))、VDI(德国标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))、JIS(日本标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))、NMTBA(美(mei)国机床制(zhi)造商协(xie)会(hui)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))还是(shi)(shi)NAS(美(mei)国标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))及GB(中国标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))等(deng),进而分析各种不(bu)(bu)同(tong)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)所规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)检(jian)测(ce)(ce)计(ji)算方法(fa)和(he)检(jian)测(ce)(ce)环(huan)境条件,才不(bu)(bu)会(hui)产生(sheng)误(wu)解。

铣圆精度(du)是综合评(ping)价(jia)卧式加工中心有关数控轴的伺服跟随运动特性(xing)和数控系统插(cha)补(bu)功能的主要(yao)指标之一(yi)。不论典型零件是否有此需(xu)(xu)要(yao),为了将来可(ke)能的需(xu)(xu)要(yao)及更好地控制(zhi)精度(du),必须重视(shi)这一(yi)指标。

要特别(bie)注意区别(bie)加(jia)(jia)工精(jing)度(du)(du)与机床精(jing)度(du)(du)两个不同(tong)的(de)概念(nian)。将生(sheng)产厂家样本上(shang)或产品合格证上(shang)的(de)位(wei)置精(jing)度(du)(du)当作(zuo)卧式加(jia)(jia)工中心的(de)加(jia)(jia)工精(jing)度(du)(du)是错误的(de)。样本或合格证上(shang)标(biao)明(ming)的(de)位(wei)置精(jing)度(du)(du)是加(jia)(jia)工中心本身的(de)精(jing)度(du)(du),而加(jia)(jia)工精(jing)度(du)(du)是包括卧式加(jia)(jia)工中心本身所(suo)允许误差在(zai)内(nei)的(de)整个工艺(yi)系统(tong)各种因素所(suo)产生(sheng)的(de)误差总和。整个工艺(yi)系统(tong)误差产生(sheng)的(de)原因是很(hen)复杂的(de),很(hen)难用线性关系定(ding)量表达。选(xuan)型时,可(ke)参考工序能力系数Cp的(de)评定(ding)方法来作(zuo)为(wei)机床加(jia)(jia)工精(jing)度(du)(du)的(de)选(xuan)型依据。一般(ban)而言,Cp应大(da)于1.33。

站(zhan)内高精密的几款(kuan)卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心:MH-630B、LH-300A、MH-500B、TH500动柱式(shi)卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心性能都(dou)不错(cuo)。

建议:采购用户在挑选不(bu)同(tong)精度(du)(du)的卧(wo)式加工中心时,需要考虑(lv):不(bu)同(tong)标(biao)准对应的单(dan)位长(zhang)度(du)(du)含义(yi);重视铣圆精度(du)(du)指(zhi)标(biao);区别(bie)加工精度(du)(du)和机床精度(du)(du)。

4我应该选择哪种数控系统?——数控系统的选定(ding)

数(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)分为(wei)基(ji)本功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)与选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)(ze)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng),可(ke)以(yi)从操(cao)作方(fang)(fang)式(shi)(shi)、用(yong)户功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)、控(kong)制(zhi)方(fang)(fang)式(shi)(shi)、驱动形(xing)式(shi)(shi)、反馈形(xing)式(shi)(shi)、接(jie)口形(xing)式(shi)(shi)、检(jian)测与测量、报警与提(ti)示、故障诊断等方(fang)(fang)面综(zong)合衡(heng)量。基(ji)本功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)是(shi)必须提(ti)供(gong)的,而只有(you)当用(yong)户选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)(ze)了(le)选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)(ze)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)后,厂家(jia)才会另(ling)行提(ti)供(gong)并另(ling)行加(jia)(jia)(jia)价(jia),且定价(jia)一(yi)般较(jiao)高(gao)。总(zong)体而言,数(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)一(yi)定要根据(ju)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心的性能(neng)(neng)(neng)需(xu)要来(lai)选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)(ze),订购(gou)时既(ji)要把(ba)需(xu)要的功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)订全,不(bu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)遗漏,同时避免使(shi)用(yong)率不(bu)高(gao)而造成浪费,还需(xu)注(zhu)意各功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)之间(jian)的关联性。另(ling)一(yi)方(fang)(fang)面,在可(ke)供(gong)选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)(ze)的数(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)中,如(ru)SIEMENS系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)、FANUC系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)、国产华(hua)中数(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)等,性能(neng)(neng)(neng)高(gao)低差别很(hen)大(da),价(jia)格亦(yi)相差很(hen)大(da),进口系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)或国产系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)亦(yi)决(jue)定其价(jia)格的高(gao)低。总(zong)体上来(lai)看,法兰克系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)性价(jia)比(bi)比(bi)较(jiao)高(gao),国内卧式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心使(shi)用(yong)比(bi)例比(bi)较(jiao)高(gao)。站内卧式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心使(shi)用(yong)法兰克数(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的也比(bi)较(jiao)多,比(bi)如(ru)MH-800B 、 LH-500B都是(shi)比(bi)较(jiao)好的选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)(ze)。多台卧式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心选(xuan)型时,应尽可(ke)能(neng)(neng)(neng)选(xuan)用(yong)同一(yi)厂家(jia)的数(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong),这样操(cao)作、编(bian)程(cheng)、维修都比(bi)较(jiao)方(fang)(fang)便。

建议:法兰克数控系统性价比比较高,多台卧式加工中心选型尽量选用同一厂家的数控系统。

5我(wo)(wo)需要选择几台卧式加工中心能(neng)达到的(de)我(wo)(wo)的(de)产量(liang)要求?——生产能(neng)力的(de)估算

选(xuan)(xuan)型(xing)时(shi),必(bi)须(xu)要考虑(lv)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)能(neng)达(da)到(dao)的(de)(de)生产(chan)(chan)能(neng)力,即要求(qiu)选(xuan)(xuan)定(ding)的(de)(de)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)在一年之内(nei)能(neng)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)几种典(dian)型(xing)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)出(chu)(chu)(chu)多少数量的(de)(de)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)。要得到(dao)这(zhei)些数据必(bi)须(xu)对每一种确定(ding)的(de)(de)典(dian)型(xing)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)进(jin)行加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时(shi)和生产(chan)(chan)节(jie)拍的(de)(de)估(gu)算(suan)。一般步骤(zhou)为(wei):首先,根据已(yi)选(xuan)(xuan)定(ding)的(de)(de)典(dian)型(xing)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)进(jin)行工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺分析,初步确定(ding)一条(tiao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺路线,在这(zhei)条(tiao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺路线中(zhong)(zhong)选(xuan)(xuan)出(chu)(chu)(chu)准备在卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)上加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu);第二,根据现用的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺参(can)数,估(gu)算(suan)出(chu)(chu)(chu)每道在卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)上加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)的(de)(de)单个工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)时(shi)间;第三,由每个单工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)时(shi)间计算(suan)出(chu)(chu)(chu)选(xuan)(xuan)定(ding)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)在卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)上加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)的(de)(de)总时(shi)间,进(jin)而计算(suan)出(chu)(chu)(chu)年产(chan)(chan)量即生产(chan)(chan)能(neng)力。如(ru)果估(gu)算(suan)结果达(da)不到(dao)目标值,但相差不大,则可以通(tong)过修改工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺参(can)数的(de)(de)方法加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)以调整;如(ru)果相差很大,则应(ying)考虑(lv)增加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)台数的(de)(de)配置。

建议:采购用户需要(yao)根据工(gong)(gong)件加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)时和生产节(jie)拍的估(gu)算,决定(ding)卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)配备(bei)台数。

6卧式加工中心(xin)有好(hao)多(duo)选(xuan)配(pei)的附件我应该如(ru)何选(xuan)配(pei)?——其他(ta)功能部(bu)件及附件的选(xuan)定

(1)坐标轴数(shu)(shu)和(he)联动轴数(shu)(shu)

坐标轴(zhou)数(shu)和联动轴(zhou)数(shu)均应满(man)足典型零件加工(gong)要(yao)(yao)求。一般情(qing)况下(xia),同厂(chang)家(jia)、同规格、同等精度的(de)卧式(shi)加工(gong)中心,增(zeng)加一个标准(zhun)坐标轴(zhou),价格约增(zeng)加30%—50%。尽(jin)管增(zeng)加坐标轴(zhou)数(shu)可以强(qiang)化加工(gong)中心的(de)功能,是机床上档(dang)次的(de)标志之一,但最终还(hai)是要(yao)(yao)在工(gong)艺要(yao)(yao)求和资金(jin)条件下(xia)平衡决定(ding)。

(2)工作(zuo)台

卧式加工(gong)中心可配置用于分度的回(hui)转工(gong)作台(tai)和数控回(hui)转工(gong)作台(tai),后者能够实现任意(yi)分度,作为(wei)B轴(zhou)(zhou)与(yu)其他轴(zhou)(zhou)联动控制。回(hui)转工(gong)作台(tai)配置与(yu)否以及如(ru)何配置必(bi)须以实际需要来确定,以经济、实用为(wei)目的。

(3)自(zi)动换刀装置 (ATC)

ATC的(de)(de)(de)选择主要(yao)考虑(lv)换(huan)刀时间(jian)(jian)与(yu)可(ke)靠性。过(guo)分强(qiang)调换(huan)刀时间(jian)(jian)会(hui)使(shi)加工(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)价格大幅度提高并使(shi)故障率(lv)(lv)上升。据统计(ji),加工(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)故障中(zhong)约有50%与(yu)ATC有关,因此,在满足使(shi)用要(yao)求的(de)(de)(de)前提下,尽量选用可(ke)靠性高的(de)(de)(de)ATC,以(yi)降低故障率(lv)(lv)和整机成(cheng)本

(4)必(bi)要的附件(jian)、配(pei)套件(jian)

选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)型(xing)时,还(hai)应注意选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用一些(xie)配(pei)套件(jian)及附(fu)件(jian),尽量避免因缺(que)少一个几(ji)万(wan)元就能购(gou)买的(de)附(fu)件(jian)而(er)影响(xiang)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)的(de)正常运(yun)行(xing)。慎重选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择刀柄和(he)(he)刀具也是保证(zheng)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)正常运(yun)行(xing)的(de)关键,最佳的(de)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择办法应是根(gen)据典型(xing)零件(jian)所需的(de)品种(zhong)和(he)(he)数量来确(que)定,并在(zai)使用中(zhong)陆续添置(zhi)。在(zai)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)的(de)构成(cheng)中(zhong),排屑装置(zhi)、防护(hu)装置(zhi)和(he)(he)对(dui)刀装置(zhi) (如刀具预调仪)等均(jun)是必(bi)需的(de),对(dui)一些(xie)尽管不(bu)是必(bi)需的(de)配(pei)套件(jian),但如果价格(ge)不(bu)高,对(dui)使用带来很多方便,也应尽量选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用,如附(fu)件(jian)铣头(tou)、储(chu)刀料架、运(yun)刀具车(che)、装卸器等。

建(jian)议:配件(jian)越(yue)(yue)高,能(neng)实(shi)现的功(gong)能(neng)越(yue)(yue)多,但价格(ge)也(ye)越(yue)(yue)贵,采购(gou)用户需要根据(ju)加工需求酌情选配。

7卧式加工(gong)中(zhong)心选(xuan)型时(shi)还有什么(me)其他需(xu)要注意(yi)的(de)?——需(xu)要注意(yi)的(de)一(yi)些问(wen)题(ti)

(1)结构(gou)设计

加工中心对(dui)其(qi)床身(shen)、立柱(zhu)、工作台、主轴(zhou)以(yi)(yi)及刀库等功能部(bu)件的结(jie)(jie)构(gou)设(she)计(ji)有着很高的要(yao)求,以(yi)(yi)达到其(qi)高强度、高刚度、高抗(kang)振性和稳定性的目的。选型时,应特别(bie)注意把其(qi)结(jie)(jie)构(gou)作为一(yi)项重要(yao)的具体内(nei)容来进(jin)行要(yao)求与考虑。

(2)功能(neng)与加(jia)工的适应(ying)性

虽然加工(gong)(gong)中心可以进行钻、扩、铣、镗、铰、攻螺纹乃至(zhi)车削 (如车铣复合加工(gong)(gong)中心)等(deng)(deng)多种加工(gong)(gong),但是(shi)在具体选(xuan)择时,还(hai)应根据具体需要来考(kao)虑机床(chuang)的功能与加工(gong)(gong)是(shi)否相适(shi)应等(deng)(deng)问题。要注意以下几点:

A、复杂曲(qu)(qu)线加(jia)(jia)工(gong)时,要(yao)考(kao)虑CNC是否有所需要(yao)的(de)曲(qu)(qu)线插补功能(neng),或(huo)选择什么方式逼近加(jia)(jia)工(gong)曲(qu)(qu)线并保证所要(yao)求的(de)表面(mian)粗糙度。三维(wei)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)时,要(yao)考(kao)虑选择适(shi)合的(de)刀(dao)具结构(gou),还要(yao)考(kao)虑程序编制能(neng)力,如有必(bi)要(yao)则(ze)必(bi)须(xu)配备自动编程装置或(huo)后(hou)置处理(li)编程装置。

B、需要进行(xing)螺纹(wen)(wen)切(qie)(qie)(qie)(qie)削(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue) (非攻螺纹(wen)(wen)方(fang)式(shi))时,不(bu)仅(jin)要看是否有(you)(you)螺纹(wen)(wen)切(qie)(qie)(qie)(qie)削(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)功能(neng)、螺旋(xuan)(xuan)线(xian)插补功能(neng)和主轴(zhou)转动(dong)(dong)(dong)与进给(ji)同(tong)步功能(neng),还(hai)要考(kao)(kao)虑机(ji)床是否有(you)(you)径向进给(ji)装置、是否有(you)(you)主轴(zhou)在旋(xuan)(xuan)转方(fang)向上(shang)任意角度位置准确定位功能(neng)。否则(ze),仅(jin)在数控(kong)系(xi)统(tong)中用(yong)了螺纹(wen)(wen)切(qie)(qie)(qie)(qie)削(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)功能(neng)仍然无(wu)法进行(xing)螺纹(wen)(wen)切(qie)(qie)(qie)(qie)削(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)C、采用(yong)金刚铰、浮动(dong)(dong)(dong)镗和挤压加(jia)工(gong)等(deng)(deng)特(te)种加(jia)工(gong)时,既要考(kao)(kao)虑适宜的(de)自动(dong)(dong)(dong)换刀的(de)条件(jian),又要考(kao)(kao)虑选择合(he)适的(de)刀具结(jie)构(gou)和切(qie)(qie)(qie)(qie)削(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)用(yong)量,应尽可能(neng)在购买主机(ji)时一(yi)并(bing)购置部(bu)(bu)分易损(sun)部(bu)(bu)件(jian)及其(qi)他附件(jian)等(deng)(deng)。

D、如果有应(ying)用DNC、FMS、CIMS等(deng)的规划(hua),或(huo)要进行(xing)网络制造,则要注(zhu)意通(tong)(tong)信(xin)(xin)功能(neng),应(ying)选(xuan)择具有RS—232、RS—485甚至MAP网络通(tong)(tong)信(xin)(xin)、CAN总线(xian)等(deng)接(jie)口(kou)的系统。

(3)运转的可靠性

卧式加工中心运转的可靠性决定了其质量好坏。数控系统由于某一块插件板故障造成停机数月的现象屡见不鲜,一个传感器失效造成机床丧失部分功能的现象也多有发生。所以在选型过程中,应采取对老用户进行走访等方式,更多一些了解所选卧式加工中心的使用情况。

建议:采购用户在选型(xing)时,需要(yao)对卧式加工中心整体的结构设计、可靠(kao)性(xing)以及价加工适(shi)应性(xing)有客观的认识。


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